A Linux bash command line vocabulary

adduserAdd a user to the system
addgroupAdd a group to the system
aliasCreate an alias
aproposSearch Help manual pages (man -k)
apt-getSearch for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aptitudeSearch for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aspellSpell Checker
awkFind and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
basenameStrip directory and suffix from filenames
bashGNU Bourne-Again SHell
bcArbitrary precision calculator language
bgSend to background
breakExit from a loop
builtinRun a shell builtin
bzip2Compress or decompress named file(s)
calDisplay a calendar
caseConditionally perform a command
catDisplay the contents of a file
cdChange Directory
cfdiskPartition table manipulator for Linux
chgrpChange group ownership
chmodChange access permissions
chownChange file owner and group
chrootRun a command with a different root directory
chkconfigSystem services (runlevel)
cksumPrint CRC checksum and byte counts
clearClear terminal screen
cmpCompare two files
commCompare two sorted files line by line
commandRun a command – ignoring shell functions
continueResume the next iteration of a loop
cpCopy one or more files to another location
cronDaemon to execute scheduled commands
crontabSchedule a command to run at a later time
csplitSplit a file into context-determined pieces
cutDivide a file into several parts
dateDisplay or change the date & time
dcDesk Calculator
ddConvert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
ddrescueData recovery tool
declareDeclare variables and give them attributes
dfDisplay free disk space
diffDisplay the differences between two files
diff3Show differences among three files
digDNS lookup
dirBriefly list directory contents
dircolorsColour setup for `ls’
dirnameConvert a full pathname to just a path
dirsDisplay list of remembered directories
dmesgPrint kernel & driver messages
duEstimate file space usage
echoDisplay message on screen
egrepSearch file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
ejectEject removable media
enableEnable and disable builtin shell commands
envEnvironment variables
ethtoolEthernet card settings
evalEvaluate several commands/arguments
execExecute a command
exitExit the shell
expectAutomate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expandConvert tabs to spaces
exportSet an environment variable
exprEvaluate expressions
falseDo nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformatLow-level format a floppy disk
fdiskPartition table manipulator for Linux
fgSend job to foreground
fgrepSearch file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
fileDetermine file type
findSearch for files that meet a desired criteria
fmtReformat paragraph text
foldWrap text to fit a specified width
forExpand words, and execute commands
formatFormat disks or tapes
freeDisplay memory usage
fsckFile system consistency check and repair
ftpFile Transfer Protocol
functionDefine Function Macros
fuserIdentify/kill the process that is accessing a file
gawkFind and Replace text within file(s)
getoptsParse positional parameters
grepSearch file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groupsPrint group names a user is in
gzipCompress or decompress named file(s)
hashRemember the full pathname of a name argument
headOutput the first part of file(s)
helpDisplay help for a built-in command
historyCommand History
hostnamePrint or set system name
idPrint user and group id’s
ifConditionally perform a command
ifconfigConfigure a network interface
ifdownStop a network interface
ifupStart a network interface up
importCapture an X server screen and save the image to file
installCopy files and set attributes
jobsList active jobs
joinJoin lines on a common field
killStop a process from running
killallKill processes by name
lessDisplay output one screen at a time
letPerform arithmetic on shell variables
lnMake links between files
localCreate variables
locateFind files
lognamePrint current login name
logoutExit a login shell
lookDisplay lines beginning with a given string
lpcLine printer control program
lprOff line print
lprintPrint a file
lprintdAbort a print job
lprintqList the print queue
lprmRemove jobs from the print queue
lsList information about file(s)
lsofList open files
makeRecompile a group of programs
manHelp manual
mkdirCreate new folder(s)
mkfifoMake FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofsCreate an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknodMake block or character special files
moreDisplay output one screen at a time
mountMount a file system
mtoolsManipulate MS-DOS files
mtrNetwork diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
mvMove or rename files or directories
mmvMass Move and rename (files)
netstatNetworking information
niceSet the priority of a command or job
nlNumber lines and write files
nohupRun a command immune to hangups
notify-sendSend desktop notifications
nslookupQuery Internet name servers interactively
openOpen a file in its default application
opOperator access
passwdModify a user password
pasteMerge lines of files
pathchkCheck file name portability
pingTest a network connection
pkillStop processes from running
popdRestore the previous value of the current directory
prPrepare files for printing
printcapPrinter capability database
printenvPrint environment variables
printfFormat and print data
psProcess status
pushdSave and then change the current directory
pwdPrint Working Directory
quotaDisplay disk usage and limits
quotacheckScan a file system for disk usage
quotactlSet disk quotas
ramram disk device
rcpCopy files between two machines
readRead a line from standard input
readarrayRead from stdin into an array variable
readonlyMark variables/functions as readonly
rebootReboot the system
renameRename files
reniceAlter priority of running processes
remsyncSynchronize remote files via email
returnExit a shell function
revReverse lines of a file
rmRemove files
rmdirRemove folder(s)
rsyncRemote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
screenMultiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scpSecure copy (remote file copy)
sdiffMerge two files interactively
sedStream Editor
selectAccept keyboard input
seqPrint numeric sequences
setManipulate shell variables and functions
sftpSecure File Transfer Program
shiftShift positional parameters
shoptShell Options
shutdownShutdown or restart linux
sleepDelay for a specified time
slocateFind files
sortSort text files
sourceRun commands from a file `.’
splitSplit a file into fixed-size pieces
sshSecure Shell client (remote login program)
straceTrace system calls and signals
suSubstitute user identity
sudoExecute a command as another user
sumPrint a checksum for a file
suspendSuspend execution of this shell
symlinkMake a new name for a file
syncSynchronize data on disk with memory
tailOutput the last part of files
tarTape ARchiver
teeRedirect output to multiple files
testEvaluate a conditional expression
timeMeasure Program running time
timesUser and system times
touchChange file timestamps
topList processes running on the system
tracerouteTrace Route to Host
trapRun a command when a signal is set(bourne)
trTranslate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
trueDo nothing, successfully
tsortTopological sort
ttyPrint filename of terminal on stdin
typeDescribe a command
ulimitLimit user resources
umaskUsers file creation mask
umountUnmount a device
unaliasRemove an alias
unamePrint system information
unexpandConvert spaces to tabs
uniqUniquify files
unitsConvert units from one scale to another
unsetRemove variable or function names
unsharUnpack shell archive scripts
untilExecute commands (until error)
useraddCreate new user account
usermodModify user account
usersList users currently logged in
uuencodeEncode a binary file
uudecodeDecode a file created by uuencode
viText Editor
vmstatReport virtual memory statistics
vdirVerbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
watchExecute/display a program periodically
wcPrint byte, word, and line counts
whereisSearch the user’s path, man pages and source files for a program</td></tr><tr><td>which</td><td>Search the user'spath for a program file
whileExecute commands
whoPrint all usernames currently logged in
whoamiPrint the current user id and name (`id -un’)
WgetRetrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
writeSend a message to another user
xargsExecute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-openOpen a file or URL in the user’s preferred application
yesPrint a string until interrupted
.Run a command script in the current shell
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